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Resultatives in Basque: A Diachronic Study in: Lingua Posnaniensis Volume 54 Issue 2 ()
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Standard Basque: A Progressive Grammar (Current Studies in Linguistics) (Vol. 1)
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User Username Password Remember me. Abstract This article proposes separate analyses for the question particles -a and al in Basque, which occur only in polarity questions, within the framework of Generative Grammar. I will propose that the former one, used in the eastern dialects, is the head of FiniteP and that the latter one, used in the central dialects, occupies the head of Particle Phrase located between TP and the CP field.
I provide the following evidence in support of this dual analysis: 1 -a can be used with ote but no other particle can appear at the same time with al; 2 al is compatible with allocutivity but -a is not; 4 and, finally, al can be used in embedded clauses, whereas -a cannot. The fact that -a is not allowed to occur in indirect questions and that it is incompatible with the allocutive verbal paradigm shows that it is in complementary distribution with the head of CP and, therefore, that -a occupies such a head; on the other hand, the impossibility of al to appear with other particles suggest that they must occur in the same position and, since it can appear in embedded questions and with allocutive forms, it does not occupy the head of the CP, but the head of a phrase below.
Keywords syntax; question particles; morphology; microvariation. Full Text: PDF. References Adger, David, , Core Syntax. A minimalist Approach.
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Current Studies in Linguistics. FREE Shipping. Include Out of Stock. Fast, FREE delivery, video streaming, music, and much more. Participants were seated in front of a computer screen, where the instructions appeared. A short training session followed in order to familiarize participants with the 2AFC procedure, used later in the test phase. During training, participants heard 10 syllable pairs. The syllables were 11 consonant-vowel syllables, unrelated to the test items.
After training, participants were instructed to listen to the familiarization stream, which lasted 17 min 30 s. After familiarization, participants passed immediately onto the test phase. Items within a pair were separated by a pause of ms. The computer recorded the number of IF responses, which was used for data analysis.
The number of FI responses can be obtained by subtracting this number from the total number of trials Japanese participants were tested at Saitama University, Saitama, Japan. Figure 3 shows the number of IF responses given by the participants. The average number of IF responses in the Basque group was The average number of IF responses in the Japanese group was In the Italian group, the average was In the French group, the average was Figure 3. Basque, Japanese, Italian, and French speakers' word order preferences.
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The y-axis shows the number of IF responses given by the groups out of a total of 36 test trials. Errors bars represent the standard errors of the mean. OV languages are shown in dark gray; VO languages in light gray. The difference between Italian and French was not significant. The above results provide evidence that adult speakers of OV and VO languages have different preferences for the relative order of frequent and infrequent items. Strikingly, the respective word order preferences of the two populations followed very closely the statistical distributions of their respective native languages.
Basque and Japanese participants preferred the IF order, which is characteristic of these languages. The strength of Basque speakers' preference for the IF order is particularly compelling, given the fact that they are familiar with Spanish, a VO, i. Italian and French participants' preference for the FI order did not reach significance, but it pointed in the expected direction. This asymmetry in OV and VO speakers' behavior is particularly interesting, as it mirrors the distributional data obtained in the corpus study.
Just as Basque and Japanese are more systematically functor-final than French and Italian are functor-initial, so are speakers' preferences asymmetrical in exactly the same way.
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It thus seems that adult speakers' linguistic intuitions follow the statistical and distributional properties of their native languages quite closely, above and beyond large typological categories such as basic word order, which is also reflected in their behavior. A language that is VO and prefixing, i. However, these languages, e. The fact that Basque and Japanese participants, whose languages show a consistent functor-final order in syntax and morphology, have a significant preference in the expected direction, lends support to the above explanation. Even more interestingly, Basque speakers showed a somewhat stronger preference than Japanese participants, reflecting the difference in the distribution of IF items in the two languages.
The graded nature of Japanese and Basque participants' preference thus further confirms the hypothesis that directionality both at the syntactic and morphological levels influences adult participants' responses. In the current study, we investigated the cross-linguistic use of frequent items, i.
We found that the most frequent elements are indeed functors in all four languages and their sequential position strongly correlates with basic word order. Thus, in OV languages, frequent items are phrase-final, while in VO languages, they are phrase-initial. Second, we have shown that adult speakers of these languages are sensitive to the distributions of frequent items at utterance boundaries in their native language.
They use them when parsing and organizing novel linguistic material, such as the artificial speech stream presented to them in our study.
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In other words, this rudimentary word order template is generalizable to novel speech input. We found this to be the case in languages that are historically, geographically, and genealogically unrelated. In the broader perspective of language learning, we speculate that this frequency-based parsing mechanism offers one of the possible first steps in a cross-linguistically applicable account of how a rudimentary representation of basic word order might be established.